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What are the requirements for lithium ion battery electrolyte?

by:UFO      2020-01-04
So far, polymer or inorganic solid electrolytes that can meet the requirements of practical lithium ion batteries are still very limited. The electrolyte of lithium ion battery is composed of organic solvent and inorganic salt, and LiPFs ethylene carbonate (EC)Propylene carbonate (PC)And low viscosity diethyl carbonate (DEC)Mixed solvent system with isoalkyl carbonate. The performance of lithium ion battery electrolyte requires ionic conductivity: good ionic conductivity, which should reach the order of 10 ion migration number 2 × 103 S/cm3. The ideal lithium ion migration number should be close to 1 stability, mechanical strength and chemical stability, effectively blocking the battery at high temperature, and the average conductivity at room temperature is about- 1 × 103 S/cm, nearly two orders of magnitude lower than aqueous electrolyte. Therefore, in order to enable commercial lithium ion batteries to charge and discharge under higher current, the electrodes must be very thin to increase the total area of the electrodes and reduce the actual working current density of the electrodes. The function of electrolyte is to form a good ion conduction channel between the positive and negative electrodes in the battery. Aqueous solution, organic solution, polymer, molten salt or solid substance can be used as electrolyte. Aqueous solution is currently the most widely used electrolyte. The output power of organic electrolyte battery is relatively low. Molten inorganic salts are used as electrolytes only at high temperatures. Conventional inorganic anionic conductive salts mainly include LiClO4, LiAsF6, LiBF4 and LiPF4. In DMC electrolyte system, the order of oxidation potentials of several electrolyte lithium salts: LiPF6> LiBF4> LiAsF6> LiClO4 change rule of conductivity in EC/DMC electrolyte system: liAsF6 = LiPF6> LiClO4> LiBF4LiCIO4 is a strong oxidant due to the presence of high valence chlorine, which will lead to safety problems and fail to commercialize. LiBF4 has relatively low conductivity of electrolyte and can be used as additive. LiAsF6 electrolyte has high conductivity, but As is toxic and harmful to the environment, its application is limited. Compared with other inorganic lithium salts, LiPFs has poor thermal stability and may decompose at room temperature of 80℃. However, due to its high oxidation potential and conductivity, it is the main commercial lithium salt. Properties of conventional solvents: EC is an important component of electrolyte at present. It has good film-forming property and the highest dielectric constant. It can fully dissolve lithium salt and is very beneficial to improve the conductivity of electrolyte. But the melting point of EC is 36. 4℃, boiling point 238 ℃, high viscosity, not conducive to use at low temperature. EMC can improve the low temperature conductivity of electrolyte and the low temperature performance of battery. The melting point of GBL is-43. 5℃, boiling point 204 ℃, reduction product is generally V-Alkoxy-Beta- Ketone ester, which produces less gas, is beneficial to the safety performance of the battery. EA has the lowest freezing point and lower viscosity, so it can significantly improve the low temperature performance of electrolyte.
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