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Reasons for performance degradation of lithium ion batteries

by:UFO      2020-01-09
Generally speaking, electrolytes are stable, but lithium ion batteries are special. A passivation film is formed on the anode, called a solid electrolyte interface (SEI). This layer separates the anode from the cathode, but allows ions to pass like a separator. In essence, an SEI layer must be formed for the battery to work. The thin film stabilizes the system and gives the lithium ion battery a long service life, but this leads to a reduction in capacity. Electrolyte oxidation also occurs on the cathode, permanently reducing the capacity. In order to prevent the membrane from becoming too strict, the additive is mixed with electrolyte consumed during SEI layer formation. When evaluating, it is difficult to track their existence. This makes proprietary additives a trade secret, including their ingredients and usage. Regarding additives, he is ethylene carbonate (VC). This chemical can improve the cycle life of lithium ions, especially at higher temperatures, and with different service life, the internal resistance is very low. VC also maintains a stable SEI membrane on the anode without adverse side effects of electrolyte oxidation on the cathode. It is said that academic and research circles lag behind battery manufacturers in knowledge and additive selection, so this is a big secret. For most commercial lithium ion batteries, the SEI layer will be at 75-90 °C (167-194 °F)The battery temperature is decomposed. The type and charging status of the battery (SoC)It will affect the breakdown at high temperatures. If there is no proper cooling, self-heating behavior may occur, resulting in thermal runaway. Laboratory tests on 18650 batteries show that this thermal event may take two days to complete. The flammability of lithium ion electrolytes is also a problem, and experiments have been carried out to produce non-combustible or reduced combustible electrolytes through additives or developing non-organic ionic liquids. The operation of lithium ions at low temperature was also studied. Drying or slowly converting liquid electrolytes into solid form is another aging event that reduces the performance of lithium ions. When the electrolyte flows away and the battery is scrapped, the fluidity of the electrolyte is another indicator of health related to all battery chemicals.
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