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Factors affecting the service life of lithium ion batteries

by:UFO      2020-01-02
The charge and discharge cycle of lithium ion battery is a complex physical and chemical reaction process, and its cycle life is affected by many factors. On the one hand, it is related to the characteristics of the battery itself, such as design, manufacturing process and material performance degradation; On the other hand, the battery is affected by the outside world during use, such as the use environment and charging and discharging system. The following is an analysis of the factors that affect the cycle life of lithium ion batteries. With the development of science and technology and the maturity of technology, the application of ion batteries is more and more extensive. Under the same conditions, the faster the battery capacity decays, the worse the battery quality is. Lithium ion batteries have the advantages of high monomer voltage, relatively light weight, environmental friendliness and the like, but after multiple cycles of charge and discharge cycles, the performance of the battery capacity and the like will decline. The cycle performance of lithium ion batteries is an important indicator to measure their quality. Many standards for lithium ion batteries have the item of cycle life. 1. Brief introduction to the structure and principle of lithium ion battery during the first charging and discharging process of lithium ion battery, a layer of passivation film can be formed on the phase interface between negative electrode and electrolyte. It acts as a separator between the electrode and the electrolyte, is an electronic insulator but is an excellent conductor of lithium ions. Lithium ions can be freely embedded and detached through the passivation layer, and has the characteristics of a solid electrolyte, therefore, this layer of passivation film is called 'solid electrolyte interface Film '( solid electrolyte interface), Referred to as SEI. Lithium ion batteries are mainly composed of positive and negative electrode materials, electrolyte, separator, current collector and Battery shell. The positive and negative electrode materials are composed of two different lithium ion embedding compounds. When charging, lithium ions are detached from the positive electrode and embedded into the negative electrode through the electrolyte through the diaphragm, while when discharging, the opposite is true. 2. The influence of aging and recession of battery materials the process of charging and discharging cycle of lithium ion battery is the process of lithium ion deembedding and moving back and forth between positive and negative electrode materials through electrolyte. During the cycle of lithium ion batteries, besides redox reactions occur at the positive and negative electrodes, there are also a large number of side reactions. If the side reaction of the lithium ion battery can be reduced to a low level, and the lithium ion can always smoothly travel between the positive and negative electrode materials through the electrolyte, the cycle life of the lithium ion battery can be increased. When the lithium ion battery is overcharged, excess lithium ions coming out of the positive electrode will be deposited or embedded on the negative electrode, and the deposited active lithium is easy to react with the solvent, releasing heat to raise the battery temperature. The positive electrode is heated to decompose and release oxygen, which makes the electrolyte easy to decompose and generates a large amount of heat [25]. When the discharge voltage of the lithium battery is lower than the discharge cut-off voltage, overdischarge is formed. In the process of over-discharge, lithium ions will be excessively detached from the negative electrode, and it will be difficult to embed them when charging next time. Yu Zhongbao, etc [26] When the battery with MCMB as the negative electrode and LiCoO2 as the positive electrode is discharged to 0 V, the copper foil collector is seriously corroded, the negative SEI film is damaged, and the SEI film formed again has poor performance, the negative electrode impedance is increased and the polarization is enhanced. The discharge capacity and charge-discharge efficiency of the battery are greatly reduced during the cycle after overdischarge. 3. The influence of design and manufacturing process, in the battery design process, the choice of materials is the most important factor. Different materials have different performance characteristics, and the performance of the developed batteries is also different. The cycle performance of the positive and negative electrode materials is good, and the cycle life of the battery will be long. Electrolyte is also a very important factor in the influence of reversible capacity of batteries. The process of lithium ion removal and intercalation of electrode materials is always a process of interaction with electrolyte, which has an important influence on the interface condition and internal structure changes of electrode materials [3]. In the process of interacting with the positive and negative electrode materials, the electrolyte will be lost. In addition, when the battery is formed into an SEI film and precharged, part of the electrolyte will also be consumed, therefore, the type of electrolyte and the amount of liquid injected also affect the battery life. In terms of ingredients, attention should be paid to the addition of positive and negative materials. Generally speaking, the design and assembly process generally requires that the negative electrode capacity is relatively excessive compared with the positive electrode. If the amount is not excessive, the negative electrode will separate out lithium during charging to form lithium dendrites, thus affecting safety. The negative electrode is too much relative to the positive electrode, and the positive electrode may excessively remove lithium, causing structural collapse. The manufacturing process of lithium ion battery mainly includes: positive and negative electrode ingredients, coating, film making, winding, Shell feeding, liquid injection, sealing, formation, etc. In the process of battery production, the process of each step is very strict. Any process that is not well controlled may affect battery cycle performance. In the process of positive and negative charging, attention should be paid to the addition of binder, stirring speed, slurry concentration, temperature and humidity, and ensure that the materials can be dispersed evenly. 4. The influence of charge and discharge system in the cycle process the use process of lithium ion battery is the process of charge and discharge cycle, the size of charging and discharging current, the choice of charging and discharging cut-off voltage and the charging and discharging method are also very important to the cycle life of lithium ion batteries. Blindly increasing the working current of the battery, increasing the charging cut-off voltage, and reducing the discharge cut-off voltage will reduce the performance of the battery. Through analysis, it can be seen that there are many factors that affect the cycle life of lithium ion batteries in both design, manufacture and use. The application of lithium ion batteries is more and more extensive, and higher requirements are put forward for the quantity and quality of lithium batteries. The cycle life directly affects the service time and quality of lithium ion batteries, so it is very necessary for producers to study the influencing factors. Only by grasping all the factors that affect the cycle life in the process of research and development and production can enterprises take the initiative in the fierce market competition. Consumers should pay attention to the characteristics of lithium ion batteries during use and use the batteries correctly according to the instructions.
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