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Does temperature affect lithium battery?


Battery is commonly used nowadays which is essential to supply power for different applications. The battery count on chemical reaction to supply power and because chemical reaction are affected by temperature, we can infer that the change of temperature could have a significant impact on the performance of battery differently.  

The common lithium battery cathode materials are lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganese oxide, lithium nickel oxide, lithium iron phosphate. With a good stability and relatively low cost, lithium iron phosphate draw attention in the current market and is used for energy storage system, telecommunication base station, electric vehicles, etc.

Does the high temperature affect the lithium iron phosphate battery?

Actually, lithium iron phosphate has a high thermal stability and the operating temperature range of lithium iron phosphate battery is wide from -20°C- +60°C. Therefore, LiFePO4 battery has a slight edge over other lithium-ion batteries on safe performance because they are able to withstand the high temperature environment as well as unlikely to catch fire even if mishandling. Since heat will inevitably generated inside the lithium iron phosphate batteries inevitably when operating, most of time high temperature effects is due to the raising internal heat during operation rather than the environmental temperature. High current state including operations with fast charging rate and fast discharging rate will cause the rise of internal temperature. If the battery operates in too high the temperature for a long duration, it will result in the performance degradation of the batteries such as the loss of capacity, the shorten service life of battery.

Does the high temperature affect the lithium iron phosphate battery?

Accordingly, low temperature also affect the performance of LiFePO4 battery. As the temperature decreases, the viscosity of the electrolyte will increases and the ionic conductivity will decreases. Because of the migration impedance of chemical ions, the internal resistance of battery increase as well. Besides, the increase of charge transfer resistance in lithium battery is also an important factor that leads to low temperature performance degradation. The polarization of anodes easily happen under cold condition which would slow down the insertion of lithium-ion into the anodes during charging. The aggregated lithium ions are thus deposited on the surface of the electrodes, which causes the reduction of the battery capacities.

Although the temperature influence on lithium iron phosphate battery, it still maintain a high stability when working. With the benefits of high energy density, longer cycle life, light weight and great working performance, it is getting more preference as power sources in various application systems. 

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