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Brief introduction to the birth history and safety of lithium ion batteries

by:UFO      2020-01-12
Due to the work of American physical chemist Gilbert Newton, lithium ion batteries can be traced back to 1912, but it was not until 1970s that commercial non-lithium ion batteries began. In another 20 years, commercially available rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are finally on the market. There are three main types of packages for lithium ion batteries: cylindrical, prismatic and lithium polymer bag designs. However, the basic structure of each type is actually the same. The main difference between lithium ion polymer batteries and other types of lithium ion batteries is that they use dry solid polymer electrolytes. The electrolyte has the appearance of a plastic film, which is non-conductive but allows ion exchange. Polymers replace porous membranes used in lithium ion batteries. However, due to poor conductivity at room temperature, hybrid lithium ion polymer batteries are often used in mobile phone applications containing gel electrolytes, thus enhancing ionic conductivity. This can produce stronger, thinner and safer batteries. Enhanced safety is achieved by using a minimum amount of liquid or gel electrolyte to reduce combustible materials in the battery. Early rechargeable batteries included lithium-based electrodes, but in the 1980s S, it was found that recharging caused electrode changes, thus reducing thermal stability. Thermal runaway causes the temperature to rise rapidly, and the battery reaches the melting point of lithium, resulting in severe exhaust and combustion. Therefore, today's lithium ion batteries actually do not contain lithium metal, and the electrodes are made of alternative materials, such as lithium cobaltate (For cathode)And graphite (For anode). Today, electrolytes ( Has the function of carrying lithium ions and thus generating current)It is lithium salt, which is due to the higher voltage of the battery (4 V)Required non-aqueous organic solvents. Use lithium salt instead of aqueous solution (For example, lead-acid used in nickel-cadmium batteries)Because high voltage can cause electrolysis of water. Lithium salts benefit from high conductivity, electrochemical stability (Voltage exceeds 4 V) , Chemical and thermal stability as well as the inherent characteristics of a wide temperature range. Another major component of the battery is the separator. The main function of the separator is to insulate the positive and negative electrodes, retain electrolytes and transmit ions. Typical materials for this component are polyethylene and polypropylene porous films. These materials provide good insulation and mechanical strength, chemical and thermal stability (Resist electrolyte) , Has the ability to maintain electrolyte, and is porous, allowing the movement of lithium ions. Since the pores of the material melt at temperature to prevent the movement of lithium ions, the separator plays an important role in the safety of the battery.
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