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Brief introduction of lithium ion battery

by:UFO      2020-01-03

lithium ion battery is a kind of rechargeable battery, which mainly relies on lithium ion moving between positive and negative electrodes to work. In the process of charging and discharging, Li is embedded and de-embedded between the two electrodes: when charging the battery, Li is embedded from the positive electrode, and the negative electrode is embedded into the negative electrode through the electrolyte, and the negative electrode is in a lithium-rich state; The opposite is true when discharging. Batteries that generally use materials containing lithium as electrodes. It is a representative of modern high-performance batteries.

electrochemical reaction formula of lithium ion battery: This reversible reaction method commonly known as lithium ion battery is cradle reaction, when charging, lithium ion Li runs from the positive electrode through the diaphragm to the negative electrode. Discharge is the opposite. This swing forms the basic mechanism of rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

lithium ion battery does not contain highly toxic substances, and its influence is far less than that of lead-acid battery

lithium ion battery has high energy density and high average output voltage. Self-discharge is small, good battery, below 2% per month (Recoverable). No memory effect. The working temperature range is-20 ° C ~ 60 ° C. Excellent cycle performance, fast charge and discharge, charging efficiency as high as 100%, and high output power. Long service life. It does not contain toxic and harmful substances and is called a green battery.

strictly speaking, there are still conceptual differences between lithium ion batteries and lithium batteries. Wang Fang, chief expert in the field of power batteries, secretary general of the battery testing and application Technology Alliance and senior engineer of China Automotive Technology Research Center, said, lithium batteries usually refer to batteries with lithium metal or lithium alloy as negative electrodes and non-aqueous electrolyte. Lithium Ion battery refers to rechargeable secondary battery. The negative electrode does not use metallic lithium and relies on lithium ion to move between the positive and negative electrodes to work. However, in daily life, people are accustomed to refer to lithium-ion batteries as lithium batteries or lithium batteries.

It is understood that the new energy vehicles ( Including pure electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles) Most of them use lithium ion batteries, of which lithium iron phosphate accounts for 80%- In 90%, ternary lithium batteries have also begun to be used on a large scale in passenger cars.

In response to the statement that lithium batteries are highly toxic and dangerous goods pointed out in the online article, Wang Fang refutes that lithium batteries are compared with traditional batteries such as lead acid, nickel chromium and nickel hydrogen, does not produce any lead, mercury, cadmium and other toxic and harmful heavy metal elements and substances, relatively less pollution. And its electrolyte is organic solvent and lithium salt, mostly non-toxic or low toxic; However, the decomposition or hydrolysis products of lithium batteries are hydrofluoric acid and other fluorine-containing compounds, which have certain corrosivity and toxicity.

as far as lithium batteries are highly toxic, Liu Haojie, a researcher-level senior engineer at the 18th Research Institute of China Electronics Technology Group, said that lithium ion batteries themselves do not contain highly toxic substances, the carbon of the negative electrode and the metal oxide of the positive electrode are basically non-toxic. Since lithium ion batteries are sealed systems, they will not be exposed to these substances during normal use. In any case, its impact is far less than that of lead-acid batteries currently widely used.

The life of power lithium ion battery can reach 2000 cycles, and the battery management system can limit overcharge and overdischarge

how long is the life of lithium battery at present? Will shallow charge, shallow discharge and overcharge and overdischarge affect battery safety and service life?

There are many factors that determine the service life of power lithium ion batteries, including the characteristics of the system itself, as well as the manufacturing process and operating conditions. High-quality battery system, coupled with scientific system management, can achieve a long service life. Wang Fang said that according to the capacity attenuation to 80% as the cut-off condition and the 100% discharge depth test, the current life of the power battery can basically reach 2000 cycles.

overcharge and overdischarge means that the voltage of the battery exceeds or falls below the specified cut-off voltage during charging and discharging, which will bring harm to the performance and service life of the battery. Wang Fang said, but the BMS battery management system in the battery will be limited and protected. The battery will be charged at low temperature and recharged when heated to a suitable temperature. Wang Fang said that in order to ensure the safety of lithium ion batteries, there are a series of safety protection designs from battery cells, modules to battery systems to prevent the batteries from overcharging and letting go of temperature, timely alarm and protection in case of abnormality.

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